Beans in Costa Rica

Information:

Cientific Name: (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Common name: beans, snap beans, Kidney bean, frijoles.

It belongs to the family of legumes or Fabaceae, from which come edible plants such as chickpeas, lentils, among others. There are many varieties and they are consumed both green pods (green beans or beans) and dried beans.

Plant: Some are small among 20 to 60 centimeters height, but others grow and extend until they reach 2 or 3 meters in length. It blooms in summer, usually from July to September. Its flowers are hermaphrodite, that is, each has male sexual organs (stamens) and female organs (ovary); Pollination is usually due to bees. After flowering and fertilization appear pods, first fleshy and then hollow.

Fruit: It is a pod of 8 to 20 centimeters long in green or yellow color which contains up to 12 seeds in a kidney form, about 2 centimeters in length. The beans colors varies: there are black, white, brown and red.

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Origin of Beans:

The species Phaseolus vulgaris can be found in America, from Mexico to Guatemala. In these countries there are a great resources that facilitate  their cultivation: however, beans are grown up all over the world.

Nutritional Value

Its content of iron helps to correct biliary disorders, gout, rheumatic diseases, lowers the cholesterol rate and is effective against anemia.  Beans are legums rich in protein, they are full of vitamins and B complex, such as niacin, riboflavin, folic acid and thiamin; it also provides iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium, and has a high fiber content.

Importance:

This crop has many reasons to have economic, ecological and medical importance, such as:
• It is grown on the coast, mountains and jungle.
• They are very important in a family regular consume because of the high content of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals.
• Improves the soils incorporating the atmospheric nitrogen fixed by symbiosis with bacteria of the genus Rhizobium.
• The grains contain proteins (22% – 28%), Vitamins, minerals and soluble fibers (pectins); which have effects in the prevention of heart disease, obesity and digestive tract.
• The wide adaptability of some varieties facilitates production throughout the year, making it possible to take advantage of commercial windows with better prices.

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Diseases:

1. Rhizoctonia solani: Rotting of the foot
2. Uromyces phaseoli: Rust of the Bean
3. Fusarium solani: Dry rot of the root
4. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum: Anthracnose
5. Xanthomonas campestri: Bacterial blight of common bean, or common blight

Plagues:

-White mosquito
-Chicharrita
-Trips: Caliothrips Phaseoli
-Green Bug
-Coffee Conchuela

Distribution:

The main places where basic grains are grown (beans, rice …) in Costa Rica are:

  •  The North Huetar Region: San Carlos, Los Chiles, Guatuso, Upala. (43% sown in 2004)
  •  The Brunca Region: Buenos Aires, Pérez Zeledón, Osa, Corredores, Golfito and Coto Brus. (25% sown in 2004.)
  •  The Chorotega Region: La Cruz. (16% in 2004)
  •  The Central Pacific Region. (10% in 2004)
  •  The Central Region.  (6% in 2004.)
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Production in metric tons (2015)
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% Of the total national production is for sale
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% Of the total national production is for self-consumption

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