Pineapple in Costa Rica
Known as “Ananas”, the pineapple is a tropical plant that provides a very important global marketing fruit, both for fresh and canned consumption. It is a member of the “Bromeliaceae” family.
Scientific name: Ananas comosus.
It is a tropical fruit native to South America. The studies point to Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. From there it spread mainly to the Amazon, Venezuela and Peru to then migrate to Europe and Asia. The natives called it Ananas, which means excellent fruit. The name pineapple comes from the similarity of the fruit to the seed or cone of the pines.
Three botanical varieties: var. sativus (without seeds), var. comosus (forms seed capable of germinating) and var. lucidus (allows an easier collection because its leaves do not have thorns).
Water: 86 / Protein 1 / Lipids 0.1 / Carbohydrates 8 / Dietary fiber (g) 2 / Sodium (mg) 2 / Potassium (mg) 180 / Calcium 27 / Magnesium 11 / Iron 0.3 / Zinc 0.2 / Thiamine 40 / Riboflavin 30 / Nicotinic Acid 0.1 / Vitamin C 21.
History of pineapple in Costa Rica:
It has been present in the country for more than 50 years, in different regions. Initially for local consumption and in a lesser proportion to the industrialization of pulps, jams and canned goods. Starting in 1986, the fruit export began with Cayenna Lisa, later with Champaca and from 2001, with the one of preference worldwide: The Golden. The growth of the sector began approximately in the year 2000 (there were some 11,000 hectares, distributed between the South and North of the country)
How is it grown?
Costa Rica has the right conditions to produce pineapple, with excellent quality standards. Pineapple is a plant that can be planted at any time of the year, but it is recommended to do it in summer. The reproduction is not done by seeds, but the shoots that are born from the central stem are used. Scions should be planted in rows, separating one plant from another by about 40 centimeters, the same distance between the rows.
Places of cultivation: At present there are 44,500 hectares divided into: Northern Zone 56%, Atlantic 25%, Pacific 19% in the hands of 250 pineapple producers, throughout the country
Where the Pineapple Is Cultivated: It is a plant from tropical climates. It is not very demanding but needs good drainage. They grow in places with intense rainy seasons. For its fruiting, it needs temperatures that exceed 24 ° C, and less than 30 ° C.
Production: It must be harvested quickly, since the fruit has a life that does not exceed 4 weeks to be consumed. The rest is destined to the elaboration of preserves of pineapple, juices, yogurts, jams and until like dried fruit for desserts and puddings.
Properties of Pineapple:
It is abundant in potassium, iodine and vitamins A, B and C, water, carbohydrates and fiber, and provides great nutritional and health benefits. It is excellent for:
— Weight loss diets.
— Constipation problems (due to its great laxative power)
— Hypertension, cholesterol and anemia
— Poisoning (works as a debugger)
— Immune system disorders (reinforces the decrease in defenses and helps the formation of red and white blood cells)
— Degenerative and cardiovascular problems
— Poor blood circulation
- Cottony scale: begins at the initial focus and then the scale insects move towards healthy plants. The roots stop the growth, collapse and rot, causing the wilting of the plant. It begins at the ends of the leaves, developing a reddish-yellow color.
- The “yellow spot” if it is known that it is really caused by a virus that is transmitted by a thrips.
- Nematodes: Attack the roots producing gills and lesions or partially penetrate the roots. Generally, they prefer light soils, although they also appear in loamy soils and clayey soils.
- The Castnia licus moth (the same as in the banana)
- Black heart: Exposure of pineapples at low temperatures before or after harvesting; for example, lower than 7 ° C for a week or more.
- Fermentation by yeast caused by Saccharomyces spp, it is associated with overripe fruit. Yeasts enter the fruit through wounds. The pulp becomes soft, bright yellow and loses continuity due to the presence of gas cavities.
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